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  • 01 Aug 2019 12:43 PM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    A Colmar Brunton poll for TVNZ News on medical assistance in dying cross confirms earlier findings by Horizon Research.

    Poll cross confirms end of life choice support

    A July 2019 survey of 1000 adults nationwide by Colmar Brunton finds 72% think a person who is terminally or incurably ill should be able to request the assistance of a doctor to end their life.

    20% thought they should not be allowed.

    Though four months apart, the result is similar to one from Horizon Reseach's survey of 1,341 adults in April 2019 which found assistance for those suffering end-stage terminal illness was  74%.

    This compared with 74.9% overall in May 2017.

    In the April Horizon 2019 survey

    • 44% strongly supported a law change
    • 30% supported
    • 5% were neutral
    • 5% opposed and
    • 13% strongly opposed
    • Not were sure 2%

    Horizon also found strong support for other measures, now being ruled out of the end of Life Choice bill before Parliament.

    These include

    Unbearable suffering:

    Where such a request has come from a mentally competent patient, 18 years and over, who has irreversible unbearable suffering which may not cause death in the immediate future (e.g. motor neurone disease or some other degenerative or irreversible condition): 65% support, 19% oppose

    Advance directives:

    Allowing a competent person to write a legally enforceable and binding Advance Directive to allow medical assistance to die should the situations in situations 1 and 2 above occur after the patient becomes mentally incompetent (e.g. with severe brain injury): 66% support,19% oppose

    Advanced dementia:

    Legalising such a request for medically assisted death by Advance Directive, when a person is suffering from severely advanced dementia: 65% support, 20% oppose.


    Comments on this survey result are welcome at Horizon Poll's Facebook page.


  • 01 Aug 2019 10:56 AM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    Source: Stuff

    David Seymour has successfully narrowed his End of Life Choice Bill to only allow assisted dying for terminal patients.

    ACT Party leader David Seymour has narrowed his euthanasia bill to only cover those with a terminal illness.

    ABIGAIL DOUGHERTY/STUFF

    This amendment, which Seymour himself disagrees with, is key to keeping the support of the Green Party and several other MPs for a third reading.

    The bill is currently in the Committee of the Whole House Stage, where it could stay for weeks if not months being debated clause-by-clause, before finally going to a third reading debate - and possibly a referendum.

    On Wednesday evening during its first committee session, part one of the bill was examined, which includes the definition of who is eligible to request assisted dying.

    His amendment passed 74 to 44.


    Louisa Wall breaks down in euthanasia speech over personal experience in family
    The Labour MP said a family member had a terminal illness, and providing choice is incredibly empowering.

    Seymour sought to narrow the bill during its 16-month select committee process but this was not possible as the committee had severe disagreements with how to deal with the bill.

    ACT Party leader David Seymour has narrowed his euthanasia bill to only cover those with a terminal illness.

    His amendment narrows the bill to only allow a person with "a terminal illness that is likely to end the person's life within six months" to request assisted dying, or euthanasia. The first version of the bill also allowed for a person with "a grievous and irremediable medical condition" to request assisted dying, leading to stern opposition from disability groups who said the bill would allow the disabled to be coerced into death.

    Terminal illness is not the only criterion: the patient must also be capable of understanding the decision made and be in a state "of irreversible decline in capability".

    Seymour's full suite of amendments - not all of which have passed yet - will set out many other elements of the bill, including the need for two doctors independent of each other to confirm the terminal diagnosis.

    The bill passed second reading 70 votes to 50. It is a conscience issue for National and Labour MPs, meaning they are able to vote independently. Indeed, some of the most severe divides on the bill are within the National Party.

    Several MPs spoke against the bill, including former speaker David Carter.

    "I will oppose this legislation, and I'll oppose it for one significant reason: I cannot be assured that there won't be some elderly person who is coerced into accepting assisted dying," Carter said.

    Seymour said there was not evidence of any undetectable coercion from around the world.

    "When we look around the world we don't find evidence of it, and, second of all, I don't believe that it's a standard that people apply to other aspects of law. They certainly don't apply it to any of the other medical decisions that people make, and if they did the entire field of medicine would be unworkable."

    He said the progress with the bill was very encouraging."The critical change other MPs have asked for has been made, and we've made very good progress.

    "If we can pass a part of the bill every member's night then we will be done in September - October or thereabouts."

    Green and NZ First MPs are all whipped into supporting the bill provided several amendments.

    The Greens sought the narrowing, while NZ First will seek a referendum to be added into the bill.

    That decision will not be made until the last stage of the Committee of the Whole House, likely some time away.


  • 31 Jul 2019 9:27 AM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    Tuesday, 30 July 2019, 2:17 pm
    Press Release: ACT New Zealand


    David Seymour, ACT Party Leader and Sponsor of the End of Life Choice Bill, has today released his Supplementary Order Paper containing his amendments to the End of Life Choice Bill.

    “Over the last few months I have worked with the Parliamentary Counsel Office and have been provided advice from both the Ministries of Health and Justice. I have also consulted with other Parties and individual MPs, as well as interested parties outside parliament.

    “The amendments are formatted as a revision-tracked SOP which clearly shows all amendments I wish to make to the Bill as they would appear in the final legislation if these changes were adopted.

    “The End of Life Choice Bill has always been a safe bill as it was designed in line with international Best Practice, contains numerous safeguards and was considered “tightly circumscribed” by the Attorney-General.”

    “This SOP has been developed in consultation with Members of Parliament and a range of organisations to allay valid concerns and I am confident that this SOP will receive support from the greatest number of Members of Parliament to ensure a safe and efficient passage of the Bill through Committee of the whole House.”

    “I am asking those who support giving compassion and choice to New Zealanders suffering at the end of their life to support these amendments, and New Zealand First’s proposed referendum amendment, while opposing all others. This course of action will ensure a coherent policy outcome and a straightforward Committee of the whole House stage for the bill.

    “Some supporters may be disappointed that this SOP will create one of the most conservative assisted dying regimes in the world, but I have listened to concerns from supporters and opponents and have developed them into a high-quality amendment that compliments the Bill as introduced.”

    In summary, the major changes are:

    • To restrict the Bill only to those with a terminal illness, judged by two doctors independent of each other, to be likely to end the person’s life within six months.
    • Explicitly stating, for the avoidance of all doubt, that a person is not eligible for assisted dying by reason only that the person has a disability of any kind, is suffering from any form of mental illness or mental disorder or is of an advanced age.
    • To include a more detailed criteria for the assessment of a person’s mental competency.
    • Explicitly stating that a health practitioner must not initiate a discussion about assisted dying with any patient or suggest to any patient that the person should exercise the option of assisted dying.
    • Explicitly stating for the avoidance of all doubt that no person can choose to have an assisted death through an expression in an advanced directive, will, contract, or other agreement, or through a welfare guardian acting for that person.
    • Providing for the eligible person, as long as they retain competency, to be able to change the date and time of the administration of medication for a period of up to six months.

    The SOP can be found here.


  • 26 Jul 2019 10:14 AM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    by Dr Mary Panko
    Published: July 26, 2019 

    COLUMN – Gisborne Herald

    In a few days’ time, July 31, the third round of David Seymour’s End of Life Choice Bill will be debated in Parliament and the Committee of the Whole House (CWH) gets to vote on a range of amendments.

    There will be a large number of these, some coming from David Seymour himself but most from those opposed to any law change to permit medically-assisted dying. Maggie Barry has already said she plans to raise 120 amendments intending to get the Bill talked out — a method known as filibustering originally introduced by some long-discredited American politician. The filibuster tries to talk a bill to death so that it runs out of Parliamentary debating time.

    However, for those who listened to the 20 MPs who spoke on the subject during the second reading (passed by 70 votes to 50), it was clear that there are honestly-held doubts on both sides of the argument — whether the bill goes far enough or if it provides enough safeguards — which make it worthy of an honest debate.

    The nearest place to New Zealand which has a similar law is Victoria in Australia and it is worth comparing it to the proposed bill.

    Many of its fundamentals are similar; to qualify a patient has to be a resident of the state, aged 18 or over, suffering from terrible pain as a result of a terminal illness and demonstrably not being coerced.

    But the Victorian law has at least 68 safeguards, making it the most conservative of all international legislation, some of them pretty strange. Firstly, the patient’s doctor cannot tell them about the potential option of assisted dying. This is a bit like Basil Fawlty’s “Don’t mention the War”. So a dying and suffering patient may be informed about a range of options from palliative care to terminal sedation (oh yes — that’s legal) but not a word about medical-aid-in-dying.

    It was argued that if a doctor mentioned this, it could be viewed as coercion. Therefore, people unaware of this possibility will not be permitted to find out about it. Unfortunately, David Seymour appears to think this proviso will persuade one or two additional MPs to vote for the bill and so has scooped up this clause into his own Supplementary Order Paper.

    A further level of craziness in Victoria prevents any discussion of assisted dying by phone, text, Internet or, presumably, via carrier pigeon. This means that a dying person living far away from Melbourne and already approved for medical assistance, is barred from discussing any concerns or queries with their doctor. It is to be hoped that we can avoid this problem.

    Further, once a patient has been approved for assisted dying in Victoria, the process ceases to be the business of the patient’s doctor or nurse practitioner and is handed over to a pharmacist from the main Melbourne hospital which has been given sole responsibility for dispensing the required lethal drug.

    At this point, the dying person is expected to travel to Melbourne to collect the drug and instructions on how to administer it. If the patient is unable to do this, the law says the pharmacist will take it to them. How they can find out that this is necessary, if they wish to avoid federal prosecution for a forbidden discussion, is not clear.

    Now, I have the utmost respect for the pharmacy profession as I lectured in a pharmacy department for 20 years, but having to understand and remember a number of complex instructions about a series of drugs which have to be measured and mixed and ingested in a desired sequence is asking too much of most of us. Let alone if we were on the point of death.

    Furthermore, pharmacists’ instructions are probably the most ignored of any profession in a day-to-day sense. The pharmacist is also not required to be present while the dying patient attempts to mix and swallow the medication. Will they remember to take the anti-nausea draught first? Will they choke with no one there to help them?

    As our MPs prepare to debate this issue again, I ask them to remember that a clear majority of their constituents (two-thirds to three-quarters, according to all reputable scientific opinion polls) want a law change to allow the suffering sick to end their lives painlessly and with dignity.

    I also beg them to think compassionately and sensibly about those 2000 New Zealanders who die in unremitting pain every year and allow the tiny proportion who are likely to opt for medical assistance to die, to have the choice this bill would provide.

    • Dr Mary Panko is President of the End-of-Life Choice Society of New Zealand
  • 24 Jul 2019 9:07 AM | Philip Patston (Administrator)


    A group of doctors who support a law change to allow medically-assisted dying for the terminally ill has accused the New Zealand Medical Association of ignoring international evidence on the issue in favour of “conservative cultural and personal beliefs”.

    The group accuses the NZMA board, which opposes the End of Life Choice Bill before Parliament, “of being no more advanced than the ‘anti-vaxers’ or the ‘anti-1080 lobby’, whose beliefs cannot be impinged upon by science, fact or rational thinking.”

    The charges are made in a letter to Dr Kate Baddock, chair of the NZMA, signed by Dr Miles Williams, cardiologist of Hastings, and 18 other practising and retired doctors.

    He says the 133-year-old NZMA has “been on the wrong side of history in the past, for example in taking conservative, paternalistic and moralistic approaches on issues such as contraception and abortion”.

    Dr Williams says that in claiming that no end-of-life choice legislation could be safe, the NZMA is “asserting the superior intellect, insight, analytical powers and judgement of the six members of a small parochial New Zealand board whose collective knowledge and experience of this subject is likely to be limited to discussions around the boardroom table” over that of the judiciaries of countries and states in Europe, the Americas, Canada and Australia, representing more than 150 million people.

    In the letter, released shortly before Parliament resumes debate on the bill on July 31, Dr Williams says: “It is important that the New Zealand public is made aware that there is absolutely no contemporary evidence to support any aspect of your opposition to giving the people of this country the right to End of Life Choice.

    “It has been successfully implemented in many countries, none of whom have reversed their legislation. It is not unethical, there is no evidence in the literature of coercion, increased suicide rates, distrust of doctors, exploitation of the vulnerable, or of wrongful deaths.

    “In all of these countries and states the practice is subject to government-controlled audit. Your dismissal of polls, not only in this country, but of those undertaken in many nations around the world, showing that the majority of people in these countries understand and support EOLC, represents blatant and unapologetic paternalism.”

    The NZMA opposed the bill in a submission to the Justice Select Committee in February 2018 and in an interview Dr Baddock gave on TV1’s Breakfast programme on May 22. Dr Williams said “the quality and accuracy” of the statements she made “fell well short of the standards aspired to by the NZMA”.

    The NZMA claims to be the country's only pan-professional medical organisation representing the collective interests of all doctors and a strong advocate on medico-political issues.

    More information: Dr Miles Williams, 027 240 6127 mwar@xtra.co.nz. The full letter to Dr Baddock is attached.

    Released by David Barber on behalf of Doctors for End of Life Choice Tel: 021 072 8760



  • 08 Jul 2019 11:24 AM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    Kia ora koutou katoa / Greetings to all.

    It was my dream that by this time we would be celebrating the successful final passage of the End of Life Choice Act and that I could stand down as President knowing that we had achieved our goal of making assisted dying legal.

    In last year’s report I referred to the significant curved ball which Parliament threw us when they agreed to an extension of time for the Justice Select Committee to do its work of hearing as many as possible of the record number of more than 36,000 submitters all told. I had even reduced my ambition to hoping that we would be celebrating the successful passage of the second reading by now, but that has not happened either.

    But it will next Wednesday!

    Our patience and our aspirations have both been sorely tested in the last year. We have waited and we have lobbied until we are now at the stage where most MPs have taken the phone off the hook (to use a slightly old-fashioned reference).

    We have accepted possible compromises as we have seen David Seymour whittle his bill down, first to a half of my original bill by removing the section on Advance Directives, then by another half to exclude grievous and irremediable, but not terminal, conditions.

    We haven’t liked the reductions, but we have understood the arithmetic of Parliament. We have been very focussed on getting the requisite votes over 60 in order to get something of what we want passed, rather than nothing achieved at all.

    We have also accepted the delays which will occur by virtue of the introduction of a referendum on the Act (as we hope it will be by then), to occur in conjunction with next year’s General Election.

    When I have become dispirited from time to time because of these delays and the effort it takes to sustain a campaign over a long period of time, I think of those who have been faithfully battling over this issue for decades. I think especially of the people who first got me involved in it and who are no longer with us: John Murray, Jean Cartmell, and others like Diana Dombroski. You will all remember others too. They worked far longer at promoting assisted dying than I have. I have no right to feel tired!

    We have spent the last year lobbying MPs, writing submissions and presenting them, writing blogs, sustaining websites, composing letters to the Editor of every paper in the country, writing opinion pieces, designing flags, t-shirts and stickers, commissioning polls and releasing them at the optimal time, creating petitions for presentation to the local MP, retweeting articles and links, sharing thoughts and overseas experiences on Facebook, and myriad other efforts.

    They WILL work.

    At the same time, we have fundraised to sustain all these efforts. We have continued to run a voluntary organisation on the smell of an oily rag. There have been no chauffeur-driven cars or wine storage facilities for us! And certainly no $3m+ salary!

    I want to thank our National Committee, including our part-time Administrator Peter Cowley, for their unrelenting efforts. They have been a committed and hardworking group of people.

    I wish in particular to thank two people who are leaving the National Committee this year because our constitution says they cannot do any more than 8 years’ service. I think they are probably grateful! They are Dr Jack Havill, our Immediate Past President and Carole Sweney, our Secretary. I owe them everything. They have supported me through the trying times and have always been there to give me the benefit of their hard won experience, I could not have done this job without them.

    I also want to acknowledge another who is standing down from her National Committee position this year and that is Elizabeth Cronje, our Membership Secretary. Elizabeth was always of the view that what she did in keeping our membership lists up to date and arranging for people to call those whose memberships had lapsed, was of no significance. Quite the contrary – that is how voluntary organisations stay alive and we are very much alive.

    To the others on the Committee – Mary Panko as Vice-President now stepping up to be President, David Barber, our indefatigable Newsletter Editor and media wrangler, Pete Cowley, our constant Treasurer as well as our Administrator, we owe enormous thanks. To our regional representatives – Jim Roskvist in Auckland, Dale Lethbridge in Hamilton, Esther Richards in the Bay of Plenty, Linda Kennington in the legendary Kapiti-Horowhenua branch, now stepping up to become our Vice-President, and Stef McKnight in Wellington, who doubles as our graphic artist and visual manager - to all of you, I am hugely grateful. You have kept the fires burning in the regions and provided the structure, including for “branches” such as Christchurch, Taranaki, Napier and Dunedin, which has made people feel connected in. I welcome the arrival of Helen Cartmell as our new Secretary and Teresa Keedwell as the new Kapiti-Horowhenua representative.

    Finally, we will have a few more months of debate to get through. I am confident we will get there, despite the best efforts of our minority opposition. Let’s take it to a referendum and get people out to vote for it. We WILL win!

    Every good wish to all of you over the next 12 months – keep up the fight!

    MARYAN STREET, President, EOLC Society NZ (Inc.)


  • 04 Jul 2019 3:25 PM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    MPs are lobbied constantly to support or not support decisions in Parliament.

    Please consider sending the MPs who supported the Bill in its second reading a brief email thanking them. It is more effective to send individualised emails rather than blind copying them all.

    Click here for a list of supportive MPs and their email addresses. The correct way to address an MP is Hon [firstname] [lastname].

  • 30 Jun 2019 11:25 AM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    Stefanie Green didn't enter the medical field thinking she would end up helping Canadians end their lives. In fact, she spent much of the earlier part of her career on the other end of the lifecycle, in the maternity ward, helping mothers give birth.

    Dr Stefanie Green has been in Auckland to talk about the impact of euthanasia legislation. Photo / File

    Speaking at the medical campus of the University of Auckland on Thursday, Green told a gathering of students and clinicians that she had been directly involved in 150 assisted deaths since Canada first passed euthanasia legislation three years ago.

    Green's visit coincides with the successful second reading of the End of Life Choice bill and her experiences provide a glimpse at what life might be like for the doctors who will have to carry out the tough job of helping people choose when they'd prefer to die.

    Read more »

  • 30 Jun 2019 11:20 AM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    The conversation before a patient's last words is what a Canadian clinician finds most interesting about helping someone end their life.

    Dr Stefanie Green is a leading Canadian expert in medically assisted dying.

    It's a very candid, raw moment that Dr Stefanie Green says connects her with a human being in their final moments.

    "Emotionally it's a very interesting conversation because there's really no BS in that moment," Green tells Stuff.

    Read more »

  • 28 Jun 2019 12:26 PM | Philip Patston (Administrator)

    Source: NZ Herald

    MPs exercised a conscience vote on the End of Life Choice Bill. Photo / Mark Mitchell

    MPs exercised a conscience vote on the End of Life Choice Bill. Photo / Mark Mitchell

    Twelve MPs changed their votes between the first and second reading of the End of Life Choice Bill which passed its second reading by 70 votes to 50.

    The next debate will be the committee stages, at which many amendments will be proposed, before a final vote is taken on the third reading.

    Please consider sending the MPs who supported the Bill in its second reading a brief email thanking them. It is more effective to send individualised emails rather than blind copying them all.

    Click here for a list of supportive MPs and their email addresses. The correct way to address an MP is Hon [firstname] [lastname].

    * Denotes MPs who have changed their vote since the first reading

    SUPPORT - 70

    Amy Adams – National - Selwyn

    Ginny Andersen – Labour – List

    Jacinda Ardern – Labour – Mt Albert

    Darroch Ball – NZ First – List

    Paula Bennett - National - Upper Harbour

    Chris Bishop - National - Hutt South

    Tamati Coffey – Labour – Waiariki

    Judith Collins* – National – Papakura

    Liz Craig – Labour – List

    Clare Curran – Labour – Dunedin South

    Marama Davidson – Green – List

    Kelvin Davis - Labour – Te Tai Tokerau

    Matt Doocey – National – Waimakariri

    Ruth Dyson – Labour – Port Hills

    Paul Eagle – Labour – Rongotai

    Kris Faafoi – Labour – Mana

    Andrew Falloon – National – Rangitata

    Julie Anne Genter - Green – List

    Golriz Ghahraman – Green –List

    Peeni Henare – Labour – Tamaki Makaurau

    Chris Hipkins – Labour – Rimutaka

    Brett Hudson – National – List

    Gareth Hughes – Green – List

    Raymod Huo – Labour – List

    Willie Jackson – Labour – List

    Shane Jones – NZ First – List

    Nikki Kaye – National – Auckland Central

    Matt King – National – Northland

    Barbara Kuriger – National - Taranaki-King Country

    Iain Lees-Galloway – Labour – Palmerston North

    Andrew Little – Labour – List

    Jan Logie – Green – List

    Marja Lubeck – Labour – List

    Jo Luxton – Labour – List

    Nanaia Mahuta – Labour – Hauraki-Waikato

    Trevor Mallard – Labour – List

    Jenny Marcroft – NZ First – List

    Ron Mark – NZ First – List

    Tracey Martin – NZ First – List

    Kieran McAnulty – Labour – List

    Clayton Mitchell – NZ First - List

    Mark Mitchell – National – Rodney

    Stuart Nash – Labour – Napier

    Greg O'Connor – Labour – Ohariu

    David Parker – Labour – List

    Mark Patterson – NZ First – List

    Winston Peters - NZ First – List

    Willow-Jean Prime – Labour – List

    Priyanca Radhakrishnan – Labour – List

    Grant Robertson – Labour – Wellington Central

    Jami-Lee Ross – Independent – Botany

    Eugenie Sage – Green – List

    Carmel Sepuloni – Labour – Kelston

    David Seymour – Act – Epsom

    James Shaw – Green – List

    Scott Simpson – National – Coromandel

    Stuart Smith – National – Kaikoura

    Erica Stanford – National – East Coast Bays

    Chloe Swarbrick – Green – List

    Fletcher Tabuteau – NZ First – List

    Jan Tinetti – Labour – List

    Tim van de Molen – National – Waikato

    Louisa Wall – Labour – Manurewa

    Angie Warren-Clark – Labour – List

    Duncan Webb – Labour – Christchurch Central

    Poto Williams* – Labour – Christchurch East

    Nicola Willis – National – List

    Megan Woods – Labour - Wigram

    Jian Yang – National – List

    Lawrence Yule* - National- Tukituki

    OPPOSE 50

    Kiritapu Allan*- Labour - List

    Kanwaljit Singh Bakshi - National – List

    Maggie Barry – National – North Shore

    Andrew Bayly – National – Hunua

    David Bennett - National – Hamilton East

    Dan Bidois – National - Northcote

    Simon Bridges – National – Tauranga

    Simeon Brown – National – Pakuranga

    Gerry Brownlee – National – Ilam

    David Carter – National – List

    David Clark – Labour – Dunedin North

    Jacquie Dean – National – Waitaki

    Sarah Dowie – National – Invercargill

    Paulo Garcia – National - List

    Paul Goldsmith – National – List

    Nathan Guy* - National - Otaki

    Joanne Hayes – National – List

    Harete Hipango* - National - Whanganui

    Anahila Kanongata'aSuisuiki – Labour – List

    Denise Lee – National – Maungakiekie

    Melissa Lee – National – List

    Agnes Loheni – National - List

    Tim Macindoe – National – Hamilton West

    Todd McClay – National – Rotorua

    Ian McKelvie – National – Rangitikei

    Todd Muller – National – Bay of Plenty

    Alfred Ngaro – National – List

    Damien O'Connor – Labour – West Coast

    Simon O'Connor – National – Tamaki

    Parmjeet Parmar – National – List

    Chris Penk – National – Helensville

    Maureen Pugh – National - List

    Shane Reti – National – Whangarei

    Adrian Rurawhe* - Labour – Te Tai Hauauru

    Deborah Russell* - Labour – New Lynn

    Jenny Salesa – Labour – Manukau East

    Alastair Scott – National – Wairarapa

    Aupito William Sio – Labour – Mangere

    Nick Smith – National – Nelson

    Jamie Strange – Labour – List

    Rino Tirakatene – Labour – Te Tai Tonga

    Anne Tolley* - National - East Coast

    Phil Twyford – Labour – Te Atatu

    Louise Upston – National – Taupo

    Nicky Wagner – National – List

    Hamish Walker* - National – Clutha-Southland

    Meka Whaitiri* - Labour – Ikaroa Rawhiti

    Michael Wood* - Labour – Mt Roskill

    Michael Woodhouse – National – List

    Jonathan Young – National – New Plymouth



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